Textual Reconstruction


Excerpt from: Cons. Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Graece (8th ed.), (LIPSAIE, 1877)

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A Brief Explanation of Tischendorf's Apparatus excerpted from Waltz's Encyclopedia of TC:


Editors. Text and apparatus edited by Constantin von Tischendorf.

Date of Publication. Tischendorf published no fewer than eight major editions in his life, as well as abridged editions and various collations and facsimiles. His magnum opus, however, was the Editio octava critica maior (1869-1872), which remains unsurpassed as a complete edition of the New Testament text.

The Text. Tischendorf's text is eclectic, though Tischendorf did not have a detailed textual theory. In practice he had a strong preference for the readings of his discovery Aleph, especially where it agreed with D. His text thus has something of a "Western" tinge, although it is generally Alexandrian (insofar as that text was known in the mid-Nineteenth century, before B was made widely known). The resulting text, therefore, is not held in particularly high regard; the value of Tischendorf lies in...

The Apparatus. Tischendorf's apparatus was, in its time, comprehensive, and it remains the most complete available. It cited all major readings of all major manuscripts, offering the evidence of almost all known uncials, plus noteworthy readings of many minuscules, the versions, and the Fathers.
Tischendorf's apparatus is generally easy to read, particularly if one knows Latin. A lemma is cited for all variants. If each variant has significant support, the evidence for the text is listed following the lemma, followed by the variant reading(s) and their support. If the variant is supported by only a few witnesses, the variant reading is cited immediately after the lemma. So, for example, in Gal 1:4 the apparatus reads:

περι cum א*ADEFGKLP al50 fere syrp Or1,238 etc
... ς (= Gb Sz) υπερ cum אc B 17. 67** al sat mu Ignintpol314 al

This translates as περι, the reading of Tischendorf's text (read also by the uncited editions, i.e. Lachmann and Tischendorf7) is supported by the uncials א* A D E(=Dabs) F G K L P and about fifty other witnesses plus the Harklean Syriac (syrp) and the cited text of Origen.
The variant υπερ is supported by the Textus Receptus (ς) and the editions of Griesbach and Scholz; by אc, B, 17 (=33), 67** (=424c), by many other Greek witnesses, and by the cited text of Ignatius.

The greatest single difficulty with Tischendorf's apparatus is the nomenclature. Tischendorf died before he could finish his introduction, so many of the witnesses cited were difficult to identify (this is particularly true of the Fathers, cited by a complex system of abbreviations). Another complication is attributions; Tischendorf lived in the nineteenth century, and even he did not have the time or the resources to verify everything he cited (nor could he always identify the manuscripts cited in prior editions). So one often encounters a notation such as "6 ap Scri" (i.e. 6 according to Scrivener) or "copms ap Mill et Wtst" (i.e. a manuscript of the [Bohairic] Coptic according to Mill and Wettstein).

An introduction supplying much of the needed background was supplied by Caspar Rene Gregory in 1894, but it is worth remembering that Tischendorf wrote before Gregory revised the manuscript numbering system. Thus almost all minuscules (except in the Gospels), and even some of the uncials, have the wrong numbers.

In Paul, for instance, the minuscules most often cited include 17, 31, 37, 39, 46, 47, 67, 71, 73, 80, and 115; in modern notation, these are 33, 104, 69, 326, 181, 1908, 424, 1912, 441+442, 436, and 103. In addition, the names used for the versions have sometimes changed (e.g. syrp is the Harklean version, not the Peshitta!).

To make matters worse, Tischendorf often did not even use numbers for manuscripts; the sigla for more recently-discovered documents often consists of a letter and a superscript indicating a collator, e.g. ascr means the "a" manuscript collated by scr=Scrivener. This is the manuscript we know as 206. Most of the manuscripts cited under these symbols are relatively unimportant, but it is worth noting that loti=pscr is the important minuscule 81.

To save space, in the Gospels Tischendorf cites a group of uncials as unc9; these represent a block of Byzantine uncials.
In addition to manuscripts, Tischendorf cites the readings of earlier editions: the Stephanus and Elzevir editions of the Textus Receptus, Griesbach, Scholz, Lachmann, and Tischendorf's own previous edition). (In fact, Tischendorf's editio minor includes only those variants where these editions disagree.) Tischendorf also gives more explicit Latin evidence than most editions.

Taken from:
Cons. Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Graece (8th ed.), (LIPSAIE, 1877)



I. Codices unciales ad evangelia adhibiti sunt quinquaginta tres:

א cod. Sinait. Petrop. saec. IV med.
A cod. Alex. Lond. saec. V.
B cod. Vatic. Rom. saec. IV.
C cod. Ephraemi rescr. Par. V.
D cod. Bezae Cantabr. . VI.
E cod. Basil. VIII.
F cod. Boreeli Rheno-Traject. IX.
Fa margo Octateuchi Coisl. VII.
G cod. Siedelii Lond. IX-X.
H cod. Siedelii Hamb. IX-X.
I cod. rescr. Petrop. V et VI.
Ib (antea Nb) rescr. Lond. V.
K cod. Cyprius Par. IX.
L cod. Par. VIII.
M cod. des Camps Par. IX.
N cod. purp. Lond. (foll. 4) Vind.
  (2) Vat. (6) (Patm. 33) VI. O cod. Mosc. IX.
Oa cod. Guelferb. IX.
Ob cod. Bodl. IX.
Oc cod. Veron. VI.
Od cod. Turic. VII.
Oe cod. Sangall. IX.
Of cod. Noroff. Mosc. IX.
P cod. rescr. Guelferb. VI.
Q cod. rescr. Guelferb. V.
R cod. rescr. Nitr. Lond. VI.
S cod. Vat. Rom. a. 949.
Ta cod. Borg. Rom. V.
Tb cod. Petrop. VI.
Tc cod. Porfir. Petrop. VI.
Td cod. Borg. Rom. VII.
U cod. Nan. Venet. IX-X.
V cod. Mosc. IX.
Wa cod. Par. VIII.
Wb cod. rescr. Neap. VIII.
Wc cod. Sangall. IX.
Wd cod. Cantabr. IX.
X cod. Landish. Monac. IX-X.
Y cod. barb. Rom. VIII.
Z cod. rescr. Dubl VI.

Δ cod. Sangall. IX.
Θa cod. Tisch. Lips. VII.
Θb cod. Petrop. VI-VII.
Θc cod. Petrop. VI.
Θd cod. Petrop. VIII.
Θe cod. Porfir. Petr VI.
Θf cod. Porfir. Petr VI.
Θg cod. Porfir. Petr VI.
Θh cod. Porfir. Petr IX-X.
Λ cod. Oxon. IX.
Ξ cod. Zacyn. rescr. Lond. VIII.
Π cod. Petrop. IX.

Evangeliaria et. unc. litt. scripta.

barb - Barberin. rescr. VIII.
carp - Carpentor IX.
crypt - Cryptoferr. rescr. IX.
ven - Venet. rescr. VIII.

II. Item ad actus apostolorum duodecim:

א A B C D vide ad. evv.
E cod. Laud. Oxon. VI.
Fa vide ad evv.
G cod. Petrop. VII.
H cod. Mutin. IX.
I cod. rescr. Petrop. vide ad. evv. V et VII.
L cod. Angel. Rom. IX.
P cod. rescr. Porfir. IX.

III. Item ad epistulas catholicas septem:

א A B C vide ad. evv.
K cod. Mosc. IX.
L cod. Angel. Rom. IX.
P cod. rescr. Porfir. IX.

IV. Item ad epistulas Paulinas viginti:

א A B C vide ad. evv.
D cod. Carom. Par. VI.
E cod. Sangerm. Petrop. IX.
F cod. Aug. Cantabr. IX.
Fa vide ad. evv.
G cod. Boern. Dresd. IX.
H cod. Coisl. Par. (foll. 12) Ath.
  (9) Petrop. (5) Mosc. (2) Taur.
  (2) Porfir. (1) VI.
I cod. rescr. Petrop. VI.
K cod. Mosc. IX.
L cod. Angel. Rom. IX.
M cod. Hamb. et Lond. IX.
N cod. Petrop. IX.
O cod. Petrop. IX.
Ob cod. Mosc. VI.
P cod. rescr. Porfir IX.
Q cod. rescr. papyraceus Porfir. V.
R cod. rescr. Cryptoferraten. VII-VIII.

V. Item ad apocalypsim quinque.

א A vide ad. evv.
B cod. Vat. 2066. VIII.
C cod. vide ad evv.
P cod. rescr. Porfir IX.

ITALAE (saec. II.) CODD.
Italae codices ad evangelia adhibiti sunt viginti:

a Vercell. IV.
b Veron V.
c Colb. Par. XI.
d Cantabr. VI
e Palat. Vind. V.
f Brix. VI.
ff1 Corb. Petrop. VIII.
ff2 Corb. Par. VI - VII
g1 Sangerm. VIII.
g2 Sangerm. X.
h Clarom. Vat. V.
i Vind. VI.
k Bobb. Taur. V.
l Rehdig. Vratisl. VII.
m cod. Speculi Rom. VIII.
n Sangall. VIII.
o Sangall. VII.
p Sangall. VIII.
q Monac. VI.
s Ambros. VI.

Item ad actus app. quattuor:
d Cantabr. VI.
e Laud. VI.
m cod. Speculi Rom. VIII.
s rescr. Bobb. Vindob. V.

Item ad epp. cath. tres:
ff Corb. Petrop. VIII.
m vide ante.
ro cod. Frising. Monac. VI.
s vide ante.

Item ad epp. Pauli septem:
d Clarom. Par. VI.
e Sangerm. Petrop. IX.
f cot. Aug. Cantabr. IX.
g Beorn. Dresd. IX>
gue Guelferb. IV.
m vide ante.
r cod. Frising. Monac. VI et VII.

VULG. (saec. IV.) CODD.
(saec. VI. VII. VIII.)

am VI. bodl demid em erl for VI. fos fu VI. gat harl ing mm mt pe prag VI. reg san VI. taur tol

Item allachm et omnlachm (alius vel aliil: omnesl) codices a Lachmanno adhibit.
In apocalypsi tres eodd Lipsienses: lips4.5.6
Aliquoties etiam ratiohabita est codicis hal Halensis, flor Floriacensis, lux Luoviensis, mar Marianae Scoti cod. Vindob., san Sangallensis epp. Paul.

flor gue lux mar mich: sunt lectionaria Latina.


aeth: aethiopica saec. IV. (?) ex edd. Rom. et polygl. et P.Platt.
arm: armenica saec. V.
arr: arabicae
basm: basmurica saec. III-IV.
cop: mephitica saec. II-III.
fr: francica saec. IX (e Lat.)
go: gothica saec. IV.
persp: persic. e polygl. (e Syr.)
perswhe: persic. Wheloci
sah: sahidica saec. III.
sax: anglosaxonica saec. VIII-IX. (ex vulg. Lat.)
al: slavonica saec. IX.
syrcu: syriaca Curetoni seac. II e cod. Nitr. saec. V.
syrhr: syriaca hierosolymitana saec. V (?) e cod. Vat. a. 1030.
syrp: syriaca posterior (a 508 et 616) ex ed. Whit.
syrsch: syriaca ex ed. Schaafii seac. II-IV (?).

PATRUM nomina pleraque per se clara erunt.
Chrgue: Chrys. e cod. Guelf. s. VI.
Dampar cod.: Joh. Damasceni parallela sacra ex cod. Rupefuc. saeculie fere 8.
Eusmar296: Eus. quaest. ad Marinum apud Mai. Nov. PP. Biblioth. vol. IV.
Marcepiph: ap. Epihpan.
Marctert: Marcion ap. Tertull.
Naas109: Naasseni in Philosoph. Hippol. ed. princ. Item alia similia.

al: alii
aliq: aliquot vel aliquoteies
c: cum sive auctoritate. Ita Gboo c. A. i. e. Griesb. omitti vult auctoritate cod. A.
cat: catena
et.(cum puncto): etiam
evgg vel evgll: evangeliaria
mg: margo
min: minisculi
mu: multi
pauciss: paucissimi
pler: plerique
pm: permulti
rell: reliqui
unc: unciales
yscr: etc sunt codd. a F. H. Scrivener conlati.
2pe: etc sunt codd. Petropolitani ab Ed. de Muralt. conlati.
49ev etc: evgliar. nr. 49 etc.

Gb: Griesb. ed. (Evv. 1827) Gbo et Gboo significant omissionem Greisbachio minus probabilem et valde probabilem visam. Item Gb' et Gb'' lectionem a Griesbachio commendatam et valde commendatam; Gb + aliquid a Griesbachio cum maxima dubitatione in textum receptum. Schu.: Dav. Schulz. in ed. Griesb. 1827. Gb et Sz consentiunt cum ς, si non nominantur. ς (= Gb Sz) i.e. ς exceptis Gb Sz.

Ln: Lachmanni ed. mai. 1842. 1850. Ln cum Tischendorfio consentit si non nominatur.

ς: ed. Elzev. 1624. unaque ed. Rob. Steph. 1550. Quae ubi differunt, ς est Rob. Steph., ς* Elz.

Sz: Scholzii ed. 1830. 1836.

Ti: ed. Tisch. anni 1859.

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