Textual Evidence

Codex 1071
and the PA

Excerpt from: Kirsopp Lake, Texts of Mount Athos,
Studies in Biblical and Patristic Criticism, (Gorgias Press, 2006)

Page Index

Last Updated: Feb 27, 2010

Codex 1071: - Collated by Kirsopp Lake:
    Introduction - Description of Codex
    Text of 1071 - General Remarks
    John 7:53-8:11 - a Text similar to Beza (Codex D)
    Discussion of PA - Kirsopp's observations

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Codex 1071

Background for MS 1071

(From Kirsopp Lake's Introduction)

'Of all the miniscule MSS which we saw in the libraries of the monasteries on Mount Athos, the one now numbered 104A in the Laura catalogue was far the best, indeed it was the only one which presented any great features of interest.

It was not difficult to identify it as the MS which Dr. Gregory has numbered 1071 in his catalogue in the Prolegomena to Tischendorf's 8th edition (of the Greek NT).

Dr. Gregory's description is as follows:

'1071 in Ath. Laurae; saec xii, 28.3 x 19.5 membr, coll. 2, ll 26. 27, Carp. Eus.-t, capp-t, capp, titl, sect. (Mc 234:16,9) can, syn, men, subscr ut Lambda, στιχ; Euv; Lc 33,43. 44 deerat, m.ser.add.in mg.: Joh. 8, 6 κατω κεκυφως τω δακτυλω κατεγραφεν: 8,9 εκαστος δε των Ιουδαιων εξηρχετο αρξαμενος απο των πρεσβυτερων ωστε παντας εξελθειν et multa alia. In Calabria nisi fallor exaratus, manibus duabus, partim litteris Neritinis. Vidi 27 Aug. 1886.'

There is only little to be added in the way of technical description, but the following points may be noted.

(1) According to our notes the summary account should also contain lect. pict. [Lectionary Pictures]. I much regret, in the light of subsequent investigation, that we did not look more carefully into the nature of the lections. Probably they are ordinary ones, but I cannot speak with certainty, and considering that a connexion perhaps exists between this MS and Codex Bezae, it would be worth while for the next scholar who goes to Laura to look into the question more carefully. I should be inclined to guess that, as Dr. Gregory did not notice the presence of any lection marks, they are not a complete system, but only a few which caught our eye, or rather, as I judge from the handwriting of thenote on this point, Mr. Wathen's eye.

The pictures are not illuminated, and are unlike those in any MS which I saw on Mount Athos, but I have since seen in the Bodleian a MS (MS Douce 70), the pictures of which remind me of those in cod. 1071. Probably the explanation that they were prepared for illumination, but never finished, is as true for 1071 as it is for Douce 70. In the picture beofre the Fourth Gospel it is important to note that the Latin words In principio erat verbum appear on the page of the open book which St. John is represented as holding.

(2) I feel sure that it was written by three rather than two hands, whose work was distributed as follows:

Scribe A wrote quaternions 1, 7, and 8, containing the introductory matter (Carp. Eus.-t. Capp-t and I think, syu.men.), and Mt 22:13-end of Capp-t. to Mark.

Scribe B wrote quaternions 2 and 9-23, containing Mt 1:1-7,26 and Mc 1:1 to the end of the Gospels.

Scribe C wrote quaternions 3-6, containing Mt 7:26-Mt 22:13.

It is noticeable that in the 17th quaternion scribe B has inserted 2 conjugate leaves between the 7th and 8th folia of the gathering. If there is no other irregularity in the make-up of the MS this gives a total of 186 folia, but our notes say that the MS contained 181 folia. As this discrepancy did not strike us until we had left the mountain, it is impossible to do more than record the fact without offering any explanation.

(3) Literae Neritinae means the writing of the school of Nardo, or Neritum, near Rossano, the existance of which is recorded by De Ferrariis in his tract De Situ Iapygiae. I think that Dr. Gregory here alludes to the writing of the scribe B, but I do not feel sure, as I only know Literae Neritinae through description.

However, I do not feel the least hesitation in affirming a complete agreement with Dr. Gregory in his belief that the MS came from Italy. The Latin words in the picture of St. John are evidence that it came from a district where Latin was more or less known, and the handwriting has a peculiar stiffness, very difficult to describe, but easy to recognize, which is often characteristic of Italian MSS. I much regret that, for the same reason which we could not understand, we were not allowed to photograph even a specimen of this MS.


I think therefore that probably Sinai is the original home, and that the subscription means that the archetype of the group came originally from Jerusalem, and was, at the time when it was used, preserved in the library at Sinai.

The Text of This Family

...To work the subject out fully would be a long and delicate piece of work, but the impression which I have at present is that no close genealogical connexion can be shown to exist between any of the MSS in this group at all similar to that found in the Ferrar Group or the group which is headed by Codex 1 (Family I).

It is possible that further study may reveal a more remote connexion, and may even connect them with other well-known MSS which do not possess this interesting colophon, which would then acquire a further importance.

...Dr. W. Bousset ...considers that all these MSS belong to a large group headed by the uncials K PI (M) which he thinks may be connected more or less closely with Jerusalem, and have affinities with the text of Origen.

There is no question that K PI (M) possess a peculiar text which may represent some definite recension, but it may be doubted whether MSS like 157, 565, 1071, can be rightly claimed as belonging to this group. They have some points in common with it, but they have many more in which they disagree, not only with it, but also among themselves.

The whole problem raised is full of difficulties, and at present no adequate solution has been offered. If however any advance is possibel, it is probable that it will be made by dealing with the smaller and definite families first, and afterwards bringing them together into larger groups.

- Kirsopp Lake

The Text of 1071

The collation with Lloyd's text of the whole of St. Mark, and of several chapters from the other Gospels, which is given in the following pages, will probably be sufficient to give a fair impression of the character and value of the codex. It must however be understood that this is not based on photographs, but only on a necessarily hurried collation, which was made at the Laura by Mr. Wathen and myself, and naturally must have suffered from the haste with which it was made.

We did not collect orthographical variants simply as such: the spelling of cod. 1071 is very bad, offering in this respect a great contrast to the mass of the MSS in the libraries on Mount Athos.

I have not attempted a full analysis of the different readings, but at the conclusion of the collation I have drawn attention to some of the more interesting variants, and especially to the text of the Pericope Adulterae.'

- Kirsopp Lake, p. 140

The Text of The PA

Chapt 8:1-11 codex sic habet: --

Codex 1071Majority Text (R/P)
[53 Καὶ ἐπορεύθη ἕκαστος εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ: ]
1 Ἰησοῦς δὲ ἐπορεύθη εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν Ὄρθρου. [!]
2 καὶ πάλιν παρεγίνεται εἰς τὸ ἱερόν, καὶ πᾶς ὁ λαὸς ἤρχετο: καὶ καθίσας ἐδίδασκεν αὐτούς. 3 Ἄγουσιν δὲ οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι γυναῖκα ἐπὶ αμαρτιᾳ ειλημμενην: καὶ στήσαντες αὐτὴν ἐν μέσῳ, 4 λέγουσιν αὐτῷ, ἐκπειράζοντες οἱ αρχιερεις ἵνα ἔχωσιν κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ, Διδάσκαλε, αὕτη ἡ γυνὴ κατειληπται ἐπ' αὐτοφόρῳ μοιχευομένη. 5 Μωυσης δε ημιν εν τω νομω διακελευει τὰς τοιαύτας λιθαζειν: σὺ τί λέγεις; 6 Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς κάτω κεκύψως, τῷ δακτύλῳ κατἔγραφεν εἰς τὴν γῆν. 7 Ὡς δὲ ἐπέμενον ανἐρωτῶντες, ἀνέκύψεν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτούς, Ὁ ἀναμάρτητος ὑμῶν, πρῶτος ἐπ' αὐτὴν βαλέτω λίθον. 8 Καὶ πάλιν κάτακύψας τῷ δακτύλῳ κατἔγραφεν εἰς τὴν γῆν. 9 εκαστος δε των Ιουδαιων ἐξήρχετο ἀρξάμενοι ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων ωστε παντας εχελθειν, καὶ κατελείφθη μόνος, καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἐν μέσῳ οὖσα. 10 Ἀνακύψας δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν τῇ γυναικὶ, Ποῦ εἰσιν; Οὐδείς σε κατέκρινεν; 11κακεινη, Οὐδείς, κύριε. καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν, Οὐδὲ ἐγώ σε κατακρίνω: πορεύου, απο του νυν μηκέτι ἁμάρτανε.

Καὶ ἐπορεύθη ἕκαστος εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ: 1 Ἰησοῦς δὲ ἐπορεύθη εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν. 2 ¶ Ὄρθρου δὲ πάλιν παρεγένετο εἰς τὸ ἱερόν, καὶ πᾶς ὁ λαὸς ἤρχετο: καὶ καθίσας ἐδίδασκεν αὐτούς. 3 Ἄγουσιν δὲ οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι πρὸς αὐτὸν γυναῖκα ἐν μοιχείᾳ καταλήφθεισαν: καὶ στήσαντες αὐτὴν ἐν μέσῳ, 4 λέγουσιν αὐτῷ, πειράζοντες, Διδάσκαλε, αὕτη ἡ γυνὴ κατελήφθη ἐπ' [αὐτοφόρῳ] μοιχευομένη. 5 Ἐν δὲ τῷ νόμῳ [Μωσῆς] ἡμῖν ἐνετείλατο τὰς τοιαύτας λιθοβολεῖσθαι: σὺ οὖν τί λέγεις; 6 Τοῦτο δὲ ἔλεγον πειράζοντες αὐτόν, ἵνα ἔχωσιν κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ. Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς κάτω κύψας, τῷ δακτύλῳ [ἔγραφεν] εἰς τὴν γῆν, μὴ προσποιούμενος. 7 Ὡς δὲ ἐπέμενον ἐρωτῶντες αὐτόν, ἀνακύψας εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς, Ὁ ἀναμάρτητος ὑμῶν, [πρῶτον] ἐπ' αὐτὴν [τὸν] λίθον [βαλέτω.] 8 Καὶ πάλιν κάτω κύψας ἔγραφεν εἰς τὴν γῆν. 9 Οἱ δέ, ἀκούσαντες, καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς συνειδήσεως ἐλεγχόμενοι, ἐξήρχοντο εἷς καθ' εἷς, ἀρξάμενοι ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων: καὶ κατελείφθη μόνος ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἐν μέσῳ οὖσα. 10 Ἀνακύψας δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ μηδένα θεασάμενος πλὴν τὴς γυναικός, εἶπεν αὐτῇ, Ποῦ εἰσιν ἐκεῖνοι οἱ κατήγοροί σου; Οὐδείς σε κατέκρινεν; 11 Ἡ δὲ εἶπεν, Οὐδείς, κύριε. Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Οὐδὲ ἐγώ σε κρίνω: πορεύου καὶ μηκέτι ἁμάρτανε.

Observations on The PA

The most interesting feature in this collation is the very remarkable similarity of the text of the Pericope Adulterae to that found in Codex Bezae (D).

It includes no less than 8 variants which are peculiar to D 1071, though one of them, , is supported by the version of the story which, according to Eusebius, was quoted by Papias from the Gospel according to the Hebrews, and by the Edschmiadzin Codex, published by Mr. F.C. Conybeare in the Expositor for Dec. 1895, p. 406.

This striking similarity suggests the possibility that the scribe of Cod 1071 made use of Cod. D, at least in this passage, and in that case we have a valuable hint that Codex Bezae was in the South of Italy in the 12th century -- a suggestion which is strongly supported by Dr. Rendel Harris' book on the Annotators of Codex Bezae. In any case the scribe of cod. 1071 must have had as an exemplar for the PA either Codex Bezae or a MS with a similar text. As the text of cod. 1071 as a whole is not remarkable for any similarity to Cod. D, it would seem as though he only used it in order to correct his usual exemplar. The question therefore arises whether he may have made this use of it in other passages.

To afford some data for answering this question I have appended a list [not reproduced below], which is intended to be illustrative rather than exhaustive, of passages where cod. 1071 has the support of only a few other MSS. It will be seen that in some of these passages cod. 1071 is found together with Cod. D. But in the majority of instances this is not the case, and cod. 1071 has readings in common with almost every type of authority in turn.

Therefore I think that although it is quite probable that the scribe of cod. 1071 had access to Cod. D and made use of it in the PA, it is improbable that he did so elsewhere, and except in the case of the PA, there is no reason for thinking that the evidence of cod. 1071 is merely a direct copy of the evidence of cod. D.

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